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Pest Control Services In Nepal-Cockroach
LIFE CYCLE OF COCKROACH

Cockroaches undergo egg and nymphal stages before becoming adults. Eggs produced by female cockroaches are enclosed in resilient egg cases known as oothecae. The oothecae of cockroach species contain a range of nymph numbers which is dependent on species. The time it takes for eggs to hatch into nymphs varies between species as well and depends upon environmental conditions. Nymphs free themselves from the oothecae by working in concert. Nymphs resemble adults in appearance and behavior, although they are smaller in size and do not have wings. Nymphs undergo a series of molts before becoming fully mature adults. After the final molt, nymphs of some cockroaches are equipped with wings. After nymphs molt, they are pale in color. Nymphal cockroaches that have recently molted are often misidentified as albino roaches. Within a few hours, they will darken to the proper color. Adult cockroaches have an average lifespan of around a year but it depends on species. Temperature and other environmental conditions greatly affect the survival of cockroaches. Adult cockroaches reproduce rapidly and are known scavengers. Cockroaches usually are nocturnal. Roaches that are active during the day may be victims of overcrowding or may be looking for food or water.

COCKROACH EGGS

Female cockroaches produce egg cases, known as oothecae. Oothecae contain many eggs and are enveloped by a protein substance that gradually hardens into a strong, protective casing. Some cockroach species drop the egg case, while other species carry it until the eggs are ready to hatch. The American cockroach’s ootheca is dark brown in color and averages 8 mm in length. One female may create six to 90 oothecae in her lifetime. The female American cockroach carries the ootheca for a few hours to a few days, at which point she deposits the egg case in a safe, hidden location. The American cockroach ootheca contains approximately 15 embryos and remains in place through the use of the female’s saliva. Immature cockroaches will emerge from the ootheca within 24 to 38 days. The brown-banded cockroach’s ootheca is light reddish-brown in color and measures approximately 5 mm in length. Females of this species produce up to 20 cases in one lifetime, and each case hatches 10 to 18 embryos. Brown-banded nymphs are identifiable by two yellow bands that cross their upper abdomens. Nymphs develop fully to adults within three to six months. The Oriental cockroach creates a dark reddish-brown ootheca that is 8 to 10 mm in length. These oothecae appear slightly inflated and each contains approximately 16 eggs. The female deposits the egg case in a favorable environment after it is produced. Females produce between one and 18 egg cases in a lifetime. Nymphs typically take around 600 days to become adults, although their development is dependent upon environmental conditions. The German cockroach’s ootheca is brown in color and typically measures less than 6 to 9 mm in length. The female German cockroach carries the ootheca until the eggs inside it are ready to hatch. One ootheca can contain up to 50 eggs. Egg to adult takes 103 days, on average. Because they produce so many eggs that develop so quickly, their population grows very rapidly.

COCKROACH NYMPH

The life cycle of cockroaches begins with the egg. Cockroach eggs hatch because of the combined pressure of the hatchlings within. Upon emerging from the egg case, or ootheca, this immature form of cockroach is known as a nymph. Nymphs are bright white in color initially. They enlarge through the intake of air and will harden and darken within hours. Recent experiments have also shown that the availability of food within the first 12 hours of molting greatly affects the growth of cockroach nymphs. Cockroach nymphs are grayish-brown in color and darken with each progressive molt. The nymphal development to adult ranges in length from months to over a year. Cockroach nymphs are similar to their adult counterparts. Cockroach nymphs undergo a series of molts. They emerge as full adults from their final molt. German cockroach nymphs are often less than 3 millimeters long when they hatch. After darkening, they are almost uniformly dark, with one light patch located on the back. This patch becomes more pronounced through the second and third molting stages. Brown-banded cockroach nymphs have two bands on their bodies which range in color from black to light gold. American cockroach nymphs are gray-brown in color and gradually redden.

COCKROACH GESTATION

Gestation is defined by Merriam-Webster as “the carrying of young in the uterus.” Insects, unlike mammals, do not have a uterus and therefore do not typically have young which gestate. Some individuals may call the development of cockroaches in the eggs “gestation.” As such, cockroach “gestation” begins when a female specimen creates an ootheca, or an egg case, which contains a number of eggs. Most species deposit this egg case in a safe, protective area, where it remains until it hatches. However, females of some species, such as German cockroaches, carry the ootheca attached to their abdomens until it hatches. Other species, like the Madagascar hissing cockroach, retain the ootheca inside their body until the nymphs are ready to hatch and give the illusion of live birth. After hatching, nymphs are ghostly white and soft. Once their exoskeleton hardens they will darken and become their normal color. Cockroaches nymphs undergo a series of molts until they eventually become adults. Adults of many species can be distinguished from nymphs by their larger size and the presence of wings. However, a few species of cockroach, like the Madagascar hissing cockroach, lack wings even as adults. If a homeowner is experiencing cockroaches invading their homes, it is advisable to contact a pest control professional. They can evaluate the home for attractants, entry points and likely harborage sites. The professional can partner with the customer to develop a customized solution to combat these unwelcome cockroach visitors.